Fundamentals of Substation Equipment and Control Systems

Upcoming dates (2)

May 9-11, 2023

Madison, WI or Live Online

Course Overview

Upon completion of this course, you will understand the construction, operation, and control of power transformers, load tap changers, voltage regulators, power circuit breakers, circuit switchers, and capacitor banks.

You will also be familiar with protective relays, trip schematics and wiring diagrams, auxiliary equipment and systems, metalclad switchgear, substation automation and integration, batteries, and battery chargers.

Who Should Attend?

  • Substation design engineers and technicians
  • Industrial, utility, or plant engineers
  • Substation operations specialists
  • Power system dispatchers
  • Project managers

Course Outline

Substation Types and Purposes

  • Fundamentals of power system operation
  • Primary substation equipment

Power Transformers and Controls

  • Major components
  • Construction and operation
  • Connections and ratings
  • Fixed taps and LTCs

Introduction to Schematics and Wiring Diagrams

  • Control logic
  • Converting control schematics to wiring diagrams
  • Example transformer control and wiring diagrams

Voltage Regulators

  • Construction and operation
  • Ratings

Disconnect Switches

  • Types and applications
  • Manual and motor-operated switches; control schematics

Power Circuit Breakers

  • Purpose and types
  • Construction and operation
  • Schematics and wiring diagram examples

Circuit Switchers and Other Special Application Switches

  • Purpose and major components
  • Construction and operation
  • Schematics and wiring


  • Purpose and applications
  • Major components
  • Types and ratings
  • Construction and operation

Power Fuses

  • Types and applications
  • Operation

Instrument Transformers

  • Voltage and current transformers
  • Principles of operation
  • Burden, saturation, and accuracy
  • Ratings and connections

Protective Relay Systems

  • Purpose and types
  • DC trip and close schematics
  • AC voltage and current schematics
  • Wiring diagrams

Battery Systems

  • Purpose and ratings
  • Chargers and charging control systems

AC Station Power Systems

  • Station power requirements
  • Back-up supplies/sources


  • Purpose and functions
  • SCADA overview
  • RTUs and IEDs

Integrated/Automated Substation Control Reference Material

  • Integration/automation defined
  • Communication systems and interfaces

Capacitor Banks

  • Purpose
  • Construction and operation
  • Switching and protection control schemes

Metalclad Switchgear

  • Advantages and applications
  • Construction and operation
  • Protection and control

Wave Traps

  • Purpose and applications
  • Major components
  • Tuning and operation

Substation Commissioning

  • Acceptance testing equipment
  • Start up procedures
  • Energizing equipment
  • Substation and transmission line examples


David Herbst

David Herbst has over 38 years of experience in designing, installing, and testing electric utility relay protection and control systems. He is a licensed Professional Engineer and currently works as Director of Field Services for Realtime Utility Engineers, Inc. in Madison, Wisconsin. Dave spent 21 years working for an investor-owned electric utility. His responsibilities included design, installation, and maintenance of relay protection systems, as well as supervision of engineers and technicians involved in system protection design and commissioning. Dave has extensive experience in protection system design and commissioning of substations and electrical systems from 480 volts through 345kV. Dave graduated from UW-Madison with a degree in Electrical Engineering in 1983.

Mitch Bradt

Mitch Bradt, PE, is an engineer and educator who loves to see students “get it.” He has over 25 years of experience in the fields of aerospace and electric power. His responsibilities have varied from aircraft electrical systems, to utility system protective relaying, to utility-applied power electronics, to wind farm collectors, and teaching and curriculum development in these related areas.  He currently serves six major electric utilities with a staff of 45 engineers and designers, providing for all aspects of substation design on approximately 80 projects each year.

Upcoming dates (2)

Program Director

Shalini Bhat

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